Background: The traditional method of distraction required a long period until the new bone was fully fused. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cyclic and repetitive compressive force on new bone formation by applying a newly designed microactuator-generated distractor compared with the traditional distraction protocol. Methods: The distraction devices were applied to the right and left mandibles of eight mature beagles, four of which were allocated to the experimental group and the other four to the control group. After a 5-day latency period, in the experimental group, 1.5-mm distraction and 0.5-mm compression were alternately applied every 12 hours; and in the control group, 0.5-mm distraction was repeated every 12 hours to perform a total of 7-mm mandibular lengthening. After an 8-week consolidation period, microstructure analysis using micro-computed tomography and histologic evaluations were performed. Results: Bone volume fraction and trabecular number were significantly higher in the experimental group. Trabecular thickness did not show a significant difference, and trabecular separation was significantly higher in the control group. The measurement of new bone was significantly higher in the experimental group, but the difference in mineral apposition rate between the experimental and control groups was not statistically significant. Conclusions: This study has revealed that applying cyclic compressive and tensile forces during the distraction period induces better new bone formation than repetitive distraction alone. In addition, the new distraction device produced reliable distraction results during the experiment.
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