In this study, CarbonTracker, an inverse modeling system based on the ensemble Kalman filter, was used to evaluate the effects of data assimilation parameters (assimilation window length and ensemble size) on the estimation of surface CO2 fluxes in Asia. Several experiments with different parameters were conducted, and the results were verified using CO2 concentration observations. The assimilation window lengths tested were 3, 5, 7, and 10 weeks, and the ensemble sizes were 100, 150, and 300. Therefore, a total of 12 experiments using combinations of these parameters were conducted. The experimental period was from January 2006 to December 2009. Differences between the optimized surface CO2 fluxes of the experiments were largest in the Eurasian Boreal (EB) area, followed by Eurasian Temperate (ET) and Tropical Asia (TA), and were larger in boreal summer than in boreal winter. The effect of ensemble size on the optimized biosphere flux is larger than the effect of the assimilation window length in Asia, but the importance of them varies in specific regions in Asia. The optimized biosphere flux was more sensitive to the assimilation window length in EB, whereas it was sensitive to the ensemble size as well as the assimilation window length in ET. The larger the ensemble size and the shorter the assimilation window length, the larger the uncertainty (i.e., spread of ensemble) of optimized surface CO2 fluxes. The 10-week assimilation window and 300 ensemble size were the optimal configuration for CarbonTracker in the Asian region based on several verifications using CO2 concentration measurements.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgements. The authors appreciate two reviewers for their valuable comments. This study was supported by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant KMIPA2015-2021. The authors thank Andrew R. Jacobson (ESRL, NOAA, USA) for providing resources to run CarbonTracker, Motoki Sasakawa (NIES, Japan) for providing Siberian observation (JR-STATION) data, Toshinobu Machida (NIES, Japan) for providing CONTRAIL data, Atsushi Takizawa (JMA, Japan) for providing Ryori (RYO), Yonagunijima (YON), and Minamitorishima (MNM) data (available at the WDCGG homepage, http:// ds.data.jma.go.jp/wdcgg/), and Hitoshi Mukai (NIES, Japan) for providing Hateruma (HAT) and Cape Ochi-ishi (COI) data.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science