A simple but scalable approach to the production of surface-textured Al-doped ZnO(AZO) films for low-cost transparent electrode applications in thin-film solar cells is introduced in this study by combining pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (PDMS) with wet etching in sequence. First, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the AZO films prepared by a PDMS were investigated as functions of deposition temperature to obtain transparent electrode films that can be used as indium-free alternative to ITO electrodes. Increase in the deposition temperature to 230 °C accompanied the improvement in crystalline quality and doping efficiency, which enabled the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.16 × 10 -4 Ω cm with the carrier concentration of 1.65 × 10 21 cm -3 and Hall mobility of 11.3 cm 2 /V s. The wet etching of the films in a diluted HCl solution resulted in surface roughening via the formation of crater-like structures without significant degradation in the electrical properties, which is responsible for the enhanced light scattering capability required for anti-reflective electrodes in thin film solar cells.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Technology Innovation Program (Industrial Strategic technology development program, 10040741, Development of the Low Damage Sputtering Source for TCO Layers) funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy (MKE, Korea), the R&BD Program of MKE/KIAT (2010-8-1075), and WCU (World Class University) program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (R32-20031). M. Son and M.H. Ham acknowledge support by the WCU program through an NRF Grant (R31-10026) of MEST.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Surfaces and Interfaces
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films