Undesirable flow phenomena in Francis turbines are caused by pressure fluctuations induced under conditions of low flow rate; the resulting vortex ropes with precession in the draft tube (DT) can degrade performance and increase the instability of turbine operations. To suppress these DT flow instabilities, flow deflectors, grooves, or other structures are often added to the DT into which air or water is injected. This preliminary study investigates the effects of anti-cavity fins on the suppression of vortex ropes in DTs without air injection. Unsteady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier- Stokes analyses were conducted using a scale-adaptive simulation shear stress transport turbulence model to observe the unsteady internal flow and pressure characteristics by applying anti-cavity fins in the DT of a Francis turbine model. A vortex rope with precession was observed in the DT under conditions of low flow rate, and the anti-cavity fins were confirmed to affect the mitigation of the vortex rope. Moreover, at the low flow rate conditions under which the vortex rope developed, the application of anti-cavity fins was confirmed to reduce the maximum unsteady pressure.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Energy (miscellaneous)
- Control and Optimization
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering