The hydrogen reduction behavior of iron oxide composite pellets containing Ni, Fe, and Mn from 973 K to 1173 K was compared with iron oxide and Al 2O3 containing reference composite pellets to determine the effect of metallic species on the kinetics of iron oxide reduction. The Mn and Ni containing pellets showed slightly faster initial reduction rates compared to the Fe and Al2O3 containing pellets. The effect of the metal phases was found to be more significant at lower temperatures when chemical reaction at the interface is a slower and more controlling factor. From the SEM of partially reduced pellets, a wide intermediate region between an O rich unreacted core and an Fe rich outer shell was observed. Although an initially short topochemical receding interface controlled region exists, the mixed control between the topochemical receding interface and pore diffusion was prevalent. For Fe2O3/Mn composite pellets, the thermodynamic stability of the MnO is higher and Mn can act as a reductant for iron oxide. Thus, the overall metallization of the Fe2O3/Mn composite pellets decreased compared to the other Fe2O3/metal composite pellets. From the temperature dependence of the iron-oxide/metal composite pellets, the apparent activation energy was calculated to be approximately between 15 to 20 kJ/mol, which is typical of a mixed control reduction mechanism of gas diffusion and interface reaction.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Metals and Alloys
- Materials Chemistry