Effect of Rb2O and Cs2O on Inclusion Removal in 321 Stainless Steels Using Novel Basic Tundish Fluxes

Kyunsuk Choi, Youngjo Kang, Il Sohn

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8 Citations (Scopus)


Inclusion removal and modification of the 321 stainless steel using Rb2O- and Cs2O-containing novel basic tundish flux has been investigated. The average inclusion diameter was significantly lowered after reaction of the liquid metal with the flux after 45 minutes in an induction furnace set at 1823 K (1550 °C) under an Ar atmosphere. The number of inclusions was also decreased with increased reaction time and the majority of the inherent TiN inclusions were removed after reaction with the proposed novel basic tundish flux. Spinel inclusions were also observed after the reaction, which was due to the reaction of the MgO crucible and the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-‘x’wt pct R2O flux system at fixed CaO/(Al2O3 + SiO2) of 1.45. The Rb2O and Cs2O seemed to have allowed significant removal of the TiN inclusions due to its ion compensation effect and the supplement of free oxygen ions, while increasing the viscosity of the slag to retain the absorbed inclusions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1520-1526
Number of pages7
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Jun 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was partially supported by the Brain Korea 21 PLUS (BK21 PLUS) Project at the Division of the Eco-Humantronics Information Materials and the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant (2013R1A1A2009967).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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