Production of cytokines along with increased activity of nitric oxide synthase has been implicated as one of the contributing mechanisms of Helicobacter pylori-mediated gastroduodenal diseases. We aimed to evaluate the effect of rebamipide in treating Helicobacter pylori-associated duodenal ulcers in terms of cytokine production and nitrosative damage of the gastric mucosa. In patients with duodenal ulcers, rebamipide or placebo were given randomly after eradication. Mucosal cytokine production was measured by enzyme linked immunoassay, and nitrotyrosine immunoexpression was measured by immunohistochemistry. The inflammatory activity and degree of neutrophil infiltration were graded accordingly. The mucosal production of RANTES, interleukin-8, and TNF-α showed a significant decrease after eradication in patients with rebamipide after-treatment. The nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity of gastric epithelium was significantly decreased in the rebamipide group. Rebamipide treatment after eradication resulted in a significant reduction in chemokine production along with nitrotyrosine immunoexpression in Helicobacter pylori-associated duodenal ulcers.
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