The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of various stabilizers on the encapsulation efficiency and release of exenatide-loaded PLGA (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)) microspheres prepared by the water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) solvent evaporation (SE) method. It was shown that the stabilizers affected exenatide stability in aqueous solutions, at water/dichloromethane interfaces, on PLGA surfaces, or during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying procedures. Sucrose predominantly reduces instability generated during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying. Phenylalanine prevents the destabilization at the water–dichloromethane (DCM) interface through decreased adsorption. Poloxamer 188 enhances stability in aqueous solutions and prevents adsorption to PLGA. Proline and lysine decrease adsorption on PLGA surfaces. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to find the molecular interaction of additives with exenatide or PLGA. Additives used in stability assessments were then added stepwise into the inner or outer water phase of the W/O/W double emulsion, and exenatide-loaded microspheres were prepared using the solvent evaporation method. The effect of each stabilizer on the encapsulation efficiency and release behavior of microspheres correlated well with the stability assessment results, except for the negative effect of poloxamer 188. Particle size analysis using laser diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water vapor sorption analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy were also employed to characterize the prepared exenatide-loaded PLGA microsphere. This study demonstrated that an adequate formulation can be obtained by the study about the effect of stabilizers on peptide stability at the preformulation step. In addition, it can help to overcome various problems that can cause the destabilization of a peptide during the microsphere-manufacturing process and sustained drug release.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2017R1C1B1006483 and NRF-2019R1F1A1056350).
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmaceutical Science