Effect of substrate temperature on the properties of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films was investigated by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering with a rotating cylindrical target with an aim to establish suitable process conditions for their photovoltaic (PV) cell applications. Without formation of undesirable secondary oxide phases such as Ga 2O 3 and ZnGa 2O 4, the GZO film having mixed orientation at lower deposition temperature evolved into the c-axis oriented one with increasing deposition temperature to 230°C, which accompanied morphological evolution to vertically oriented dense columnar structure and improved doping efficiency. Correlated with this, crater-like surface texturing was possible only on the sample deposited at 230°C. Electrical resistivity and diffuse surface reflectance over the spectral range of 200-1200 nm of this GZO film after surface texturing were 8.73 × 10 -4 cm and 3.32%, respectively, indicating that the film has application potential as anti-reflection coating and front electrode of PV cells. Morphological features, surface texturing behavior, electrical and optical properties of the GZO films in this study suggest that this novel technique would be applicable to the fabrication of anti-reflection coating and front electrode of PV cells only when substrate temperature is sufficiently high.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Technology Innovation Program (Industrial Strategic technology development program, 10040741, Development of the Low Damage Sputtering Source for TCO Layers) funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy (MKE, Korea) and by the R&BD Program of MKE/KIAT (2010-8-1075).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films