Effectiveness of VR crane training with head-mounted display: Double mediation of presence and perceived usefulness

Hayeon Song, Taenyun Kim, Jieun Kim, Dohyun Ahn, Youngcheol Kang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to provide an immersive experience that can promote effective learning. The use of VR with head-mounted displays can be especially ideal for training operators of heavy equipment such as cranes, resulting in cost savings and enhanced safety of apprentices. In this study, a set of VR training systems is introduced for three different types of cranes (i.e., overhead, container, and tower crane), and an experiment is conducted to test their effectiveness. A total of 108 students participated in the experiment. The findings revealed that the VR crane training system significantly enhanced the students' self-efficacy when operating a crane. The underlying mechanism of how the VR crane training improves trainees' level of self-efficacy is also investigated. Double mediation analysis revealed that the change in self-efficacy is driven by usability mediated by the feeling of presence and perceived usefulness.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103506
JournalAutomation in Construction
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Feb

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the MSIT (Ministry of Science and ICT), Korea, under the ICAN (ICT Challenge and Advanced Network of HRD) program (IITP-2020-0-01816) supervised by the IITP (Institute of Information & Communications Technology Planning & Evaluation). Special thanks to Korea Communication Agency.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier B.V.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction


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