Background: Drinking coffee can raise public health problems, but the association between coffee and kidney disease is unknown. We studied whether coffee intake can affect the development of chronic kidney disease in the general population. Methods: We analyzed 8717 subjects with normal renal function recruited from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) cohort. Based on a food frequency questionnaire, coffee consumption was categorized into 5 groups: 0 per week, <1 cup per week, 1-6 cups per week, 1 cup per day, and ≥2 cups per day. The primary outcome was incident chronic kidney disease, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results: The mean age (standard deviation) of study subjects was 52.0 (8.8) years, and 47.8% were male. Among the subjects, 52.8% were daily coffee consumers. During a mean follow-up of 11.3 (range, 5.9-11.5) years, 9.5% of participants developed chronic kidney disease. The incident chronic kidney disease occurred less in daily coffee consumers. Unadjusted hazard ratios (HRs) was significantly lower in daily coffee consumers. In multivariable Cox model even after adjustment of blood pressure, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and amount of daily intake for caffeine-containing foods such as tea and chocolate, coffee consumers with 1 cup per day (HR, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.92) and ≥2 cups per day (HR, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.98) were associated with a lower risk of chronic kidney disease development than nondrinkers. Time-averaged and time-varying Cox models yielded similar results. The rates of decline in glomerular filtration were lower in daily coffee consumers. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that daily coffee intake is associated with decreased risk of the development of chronic kidney disease.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The epidemiologic data used in this study were obtained from the KoGES; (4851?302) of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Republic of Korea. This work was supported by a grant of the Korea Health Technology R\046D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health \046 Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant number: HC15C1129).
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