The excessively strong polar jet and cold pole in the SouthernHemisphere winter stratosphere are systematic biases in most global climate models and are related to underestimated wave drag in the winter extratropical stratosphere-namely, missing gravity wave drag (GWD). Cumulus convection is strong in the winter extratropics in association with storm-track regions; thus, convective GWD could be one of the missing GWDs in models that do not adopt source-based nonorographic GWD parameterizations. In this study, the authors use the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) and show that the zonal-mean wind and temperature biases in the SouthernHemisphere winter stratosphere of themodel are significantly alleviated by including convective GWD (GWDC) parameterizations. The reduction in the wind biases is due to enhanced wave drag in the winter extratropical stratosphere, which is caused directly by the additional GWDC and indirectly by the increased existing nonorographic GWD and resolved wave drag in response to the GWDC. The cold temperature biases are alleviated by increased downwelling in the winter polar stratosphere, which stems from an increased poleward motion due to enhanced wave drag in the winter extratropical stratosphere. A comparison between two simulations separately using the ray-based and columnar GWDC parameterizations shows that the polar night jet with a ray-based GWDC parameterization is much more realistic than that with a columnar GWDC parameterization.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science