Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the effect that detection of chronic disease via health screening programs has on health behaviors, particularly smoking. Materials and Methods: We analyzed national health insurance data from 2007 and 2009. Subjects who were 40 years of age in 2007 and eligible for the life cycle-based national health screening program were included. The total study population comprised 153518 individuals who participated in the screening program in 2007 and follow-up screening in 2009. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted by sex, with adjustment for health insurance type, socioeconomic status, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and family history of cardiovascular and/or neurovascular disease. Results: Among men with smoking behavior changes, those newly diagnosed with hyperlipidemia were more likely to show a positive health behavior change, such as smoking cessation, and were less likely to have a negative behavior change (e.g., smoking initiation). Additionally, men newly diagnosed with diabetes showed lower rates of negative health behavior changes compared to those without disease. Body mass index (BMI)≥25, compared to BMI<23, showed higher rates of positive health behavior changes and lower rates of negative health behavior changes. Newly diagnosed chronic disease did not influence smoking behavior in women. Conclusion: Smoking behavior changes were only detected in men who participated in health screening programs. In particular, those newly diagnosed with hyperlipidemia were more likely to stop smoking and less likely to start smoking.
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