Background: Wingless and integration site growth factor (Wnt) signaling is a tumorigenesis-related signaling pathway. Dickkpof-1 (DKK1) and secreted frizzled-related protein-1 (SFRP1) are endogenous negative regulators of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Accumulating evidence indicates that higher serum levels of DKK1 are correlated with poor prognosis of various types of cancer. Here, we investigated whether exercise training causes changes in the serum levels of DKK1 and SFRP1 in patients with breast cancer. Methods: Twenty-four breast cancer survivors, after chemo-or radiotherapy, participated in this single-blind randomized, controlled pilot study. Subjects were randomized to either an exercise program or a control group for 12 weeks and completed pre-and post-training tests for health-related fitness and body composition as well as blood biomarkers. The serum levels of DKK1 and SFRP1 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as the primary outcome. Results: Exercise training for 12 weeks remarkably increased muscle strength, endurance, and flexibility and decreased body fat percentage, waist circumference, and visceral fat area (all p < 0.05). Exercise training lowered serum insulin levels and leptin/adiponectin ratios (all p < 0.05). The levels of DKK1 and SFRP1 were also significantly decreased by exercise training in breast cancer survivors (all p < 0.01). Conclusions: Our results indicate that DKK1 and SFRP1 may be potentially useful biomarkers for evaluating the beneficial effects of long-term exercise on physical fitness and metabolism as well as the prognosis of patients with cancer.
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© 2017 Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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