Objectives: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate and compare the effects of fast- and slow-setting calcium silicate–based materials (CSMs) used for root-end filling on the outcome of endodontic microsurgery. Materials and methods: We searched a clinical database for patients who had received endodontic microsurgery between 2001 and 2016. Included cases were divided into two groups according to the type of CSM used for root-end filling: slow-setting CSM (SCSM) and fast-setting CSM (FCSM). The cases in two groups were subjected to 1:1 nearest neighbor propensity score matching for the following variables: age, sex, tooth type, quality of canal filling, lesion type, and postoperative restoration. For each matched case, the outcome was determined as success or failure according to clinical and radiographic evaluations performed at least 1 year after surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors and estimate their effects. Results: In total, 304 cases of endodontic microsurgery (179 SCSM and 125 FCSM) were identified, and 1:1 propensity score matching finally included 122 cases from each group. After matching, all covariates were associated with an absolute standardized difference of < 0.1. The overall success rates were 85.2% and 93.4% for the SCSM and FCSM groups, respectively (p = 0.062). Age, tooth type, lesion type, and CSM type were significantly associated with the outcome of endodontic microsurgery (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Within the limitations, the outcome of endodontic microsurgery using FCSMs was comparable with that of SCSMs. The findings suggest that the type of CSM used for root-end filling, particularly in terms of the initial setting time, could affect the outcome of endodontic microsurgery. Clinical relevance: FCSMs could be considered for use as root-end filling materials in endodontic microsurgery, particularly in complicated clinical situations which require rapid initial setting of the materials.
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