Effects of incorporating 45S5 bioactive glass into 30% hydrogen peroxide solution on whitening efficacy and enamel surface properties

Song Yi Yang, A. Ruem Han, Kwang Mahn Kim, Jae Sung Kwon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of 30% hydrogen peroxide (HP) solution containing various contents of 45S5 bioactive glass (BAG) on whitening efficacy and enamel surface properties after simulating the clinical bleaching procedure. Materials and methods: A total of 60 bovine enamel specimens discolored with black tea were divided into five groups treated with distilled water (DW), HP, 0.01 wt.% BAG + HP, 1.0 wt.% BAG + HP, and 20.0 wt.% BAG + HP (n = 12). The pH change was observed for 20 min immediately after mixing the experimental solutions, which were applied for 20 min/week, at 37 °C over 21 days. Color, gloss, roughness, microhardness, and micromorphology measurements were conducted before and after bleaching treatment. Results: All groups containing BAG experienced an increase in pH from 3.5 to 5.5 in less than 1 min, and the final pH increased as the BAG content increased. The ΔE of all experimental groups was significantly higher than that of the DW group (p < 0.05), but there were no significant differences between different BAG contents (p > 0.05). Gloss significantly decreased in all experimental groups compared to the DW group, and the increased BAG content had significantly affected the decrease in gloss (p < 0.05). There was no statistical difference in surface roughness (p > 0.05), but hardness increased significantly with BAG content after bleaching treatment (p < 0.05). Conclusions: HP containing 45S5 BAG showed efficacy in tooth whitening. Also, the pH value of the HP remained acidic near 3.5 for 20 min, while the HP containing the 45S5 BAG showed an increase in pH, which inhibited the demineralization of the enamel surface, and maintained the surface morphology. Clinical relevance: These novel materials are promising candidates to minimize enamel surface damage caused by HP during bleaching procedure in dental clinic.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5301-5312
Number of pages12
JournalClinical Oral Investigations
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Aug

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work has supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MIST) (No. 2020R1I1A1A01051962).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Dentistry(all)


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