Effects of Multilayer Clothing System Array on Water Vapor Transfer and Condensation in Cold Weather Clothing Ensemble

Shinjung Yoo, Eunae Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Citations (Scopus)


In order to improve designs and material development, it is necessary to evaluate the performance of multilayer cold weather clothing ensembles under real usage conditions. At low temperatures, condensation always occurs when a wearer sweats, and this influences the heat and moisture transfer characteristics of a clothing system. The layer array effects of multilayer cold weather clothing ensembles on heat and moisture transfer and condensation profiles were examined by using the Human-Clothing-Environment simulator. Three different fabric arrangements consisted of identical five-layer fabrics were exposed to 2 and 5 mL of sweat pulses under a —15°C climatic condition. The temperature and vapor concentration profiles within each microclimate were assessed over time and the amount of condensation on each layer was measured after an hour of exposure. Most of the condensation took place on the outer surface of the second and third fleece fabrics, not on the inside of the waterproof breathable outer shell. Without altering materials, the layer arrangement itself influenced the condensation profiles, as well as the heat and water vapor permeability of the clothing ensembles. Combining an insulating layer with an outer shell caused clothing systems to exhibit better water vapor permeability and less moisture accumulation. The distribution of condensed water on each layer was also influenced by the layer arrangement.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)189-197
Number of pages9
JournalTextile Research Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Jan 1


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Polymers and Plastics

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