Background: The various methods for regeneration of periodontal tissue that have been developed can be classified into guided tissue regeneration and bone implantation. Since the implantation materials have shown both deficiencies and merits, dentists have begun exploring the bioactive glass first used in plastic surgery. This paper examines the effectiveness of this new material on periodontal intrabony defects. Methods: Clinical effects of bioactive glass implantation in intrabony periodontal defects were evaluated 6 months after surgery in 38 intrabony defects from 38 patients with chronic periodontitis. Twenty-one experimental defects received bioactive glass implantation (test group), while 17 control defects were treated with a flap procedure only (control group). The criteria for comparative observation were preoperative and postoperative probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bone probing depth (BPD), and gingival recession. Results: Reductions in PD were observed in both groups (P<0.01). The reduction in PD was significantly greater in the test group when preoperative PD exceeded 7 mm (P<0.01). Improvements in CAL were also observed in both groups (P<0.01), with the test group showing significantly greater gains (P<0.05). In those cases where preoperative CAL was less than 7 mm, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Reduction in BPD was observed in both groups, with the test group showing significantly greater reduction (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in BPD change, however, when preoperative BPD was ≤7 mm. Significantly greater reduction of BPD in the test group was observed when intrabony defect depth was >4 mm (P<0.05). Significant improvements in PD, CAL, and BPD were noted in the test group when the crestal involvement exceeded 100°. Correlation test between various clinical parameters indicated that greater changes in PD and CAL in the test group were observed when preoperative CAL was large (P<0.001), and greater changes in PD (P<0.05), CAL (P<0.01), and BPD (P<0.05) were noted when preoperative BPD was large. Correlation between crestal involvement and CAL change was noted only in the control group (P<0.01). High correlations were observed between PD changes and CAL changes and between CAL changes and BPD changes in both groups. Conclusions: use of a bone substitute in a flap operation resulted in significantly greater improvements in CAL and BPD over flap operation alone and seemed to have positive effects in postoperative PD, CAL, and BPD in those cases with more severe preoperative CAL and BPD.
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