Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) contains different components that can elicit varying adverse health effects in humans and animals. Studies on PM toxicity and its underlying mechanisms in the middle ear are limited, and they generally use a PM standard. However, as PM composition varies temporally and geographically, it is crucial to identify the toxic PM constituents according to season and region and investigate their associated health effects. Thus, we sought to determine whether PM induces cytotoxicity and inflammatory factor and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in human middle ear epithelial cells obtained from patients with otitis media. The cells were treated with both standard urban PM and PM directly captured from the atmosphere in Wonju City. The association between mitochondrial dysfunction and PM was investigated. PM exposure significantly increased COX-2 and TNF-α mRNA expression, increased ROS generation, induced inflammatory responses, and caused abnormalities in mitochondrial motility and function. Furthermore, PM induced cell apoptosis, which consequently reduced cell survival, particularly at the concentration of 100 μg/mL. Overall, our study provides new insights into the toxic effects of standard and atmospheric PM on middle ear cell line.
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||Environmental Science and Pollution Research|
|Publication status||Published - 2021 Sept|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (grant number 2019R1A6A3A01096651) and by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MSIT) (No. NRF-2020R1A2C1009789) and by National Information Society Agency(NIA) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT. The funding agency had no role in the design of the study; collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; writing the manuscript; and the decision to submit the article for publication.
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Chemistry
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis