Aim: This paper is a report of a study conducted to examine the influence of self-efficacy and affectivity (individual-level variables) and collective efficacy (group-level variable) on nursing performance among hospital nurses. Background: Previous studies of nursing performance, which have focused on individual factor outcomes, have shown limitations. Due to the heavy focus on the analysis of single-level performances, the influence of organizational contextual factors on nursing performance has rarely been studied. Hence, for a better understanding of nurses' professional development and effective functioning in hospitals, there is a need to study the effects of organizational characteristics as well as individual characteristics on nursing performance. Method: A descriptive-correlational design was used with a convenience sample of 1996 nurses selected from 182 nursing units in 28 hospitals in six metropolitan cities and seven provinces in Korea. Data were collected in 2006 using self-administered questionnaires, which were analysed with using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients and multilevel analysis. Results: Individual-level variables, including job position, years of experience, employment status, self-efficacy and positive affectivity were positively related to nursing performance. Collective efficacy and the number of in-service meetings within units were statistically significant group-level variables. Group-level variables reduced the error variances in nursing performance. Conclusion: Understanding the effects of group-level variables on nursing performance improves performance management approaches in hospitals.
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