Background and Objectives: Little is known about the outcomes of outpatient clinic-based elective external cardioversion (OPC-ECV) for persistent atrial fibrillation (PeAF). We investigated the acute, short-term, and long-term elective external cardioversion (ECV) outcomes. Methods: We included 1,718 patients who underwent OPC-ECV (74% male, 61.1±11.0 years old, 90.9% long-standing PeAF, 9.1% after atrial fibrillation [AF] ablation) after excluding patients with atrial tachycardia or inappropriate antiarrhythmic drug medication, and in-patient ECV. Biphasic shocks were delivered sequentially until successful cardioversion was achieved (70-100-150-200-250 J). If ECV failed at 150 J, we administered intravenous amiodarone 150 mg and delivered 200 J. Results: ECV failed in 11.4%, and the complication rate was 0.47%. Within 3 months, AF recurred in 55.5% (44.7% as sustaining AF, 10.8% as paroxysmal AF), and the AF duration was independently associated (odds ratio [OR], 1.01 [1.00-1.02]; p=0.006), but amiodarone was independently protective (OR, 0.46 [0.27-0.76]; p=0.002, Log rank p<0.001) against an early recurrence. Regarding the long-term recurrence, pre-ECV heart failure was protective against an AF recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.63 [0.41-0.96], p=0.033) over 32 (9-66) months of follow-up. ECV energy (p<0.001) and early recurrence rate within 3 months (p=0.007, Log rank p=0.006) were significantly lower in post-ablation patients than in those with longstanding persistent AF. Conclusions: The success rate of OPC-ECV was 88.6%, and the complication rate was low. However, AF recurred in 55.5% within 3 months. Amiodarone was protective against short-term AF recurrences, and long-term AF recurrences were less in patients with baseline heart failure.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by grants (HI18C0070 and HI19C0114) from the Ministry of Health and Welfare and a grant (NRF-2017R1A2B4003983) from the Basic Science Research Program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), which is funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine