Efficacy of controlled-release KMnO4 (CRP) for controlling dissolved TCE plume in groundwater: A large flow-tank study

Byung Sun Lee, Jeong Hee Kim, Ki Churl Lee, Yang Bin Kim, Franklin W. Schwartz, Eung Seok Lee, Nam Chil Woo, Myoung Ki Lee

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Abstract

A well-based, reactive barrier system using controlled-release potassium permanganate (CRP system) was recently developed as a long-term treatment option for dilute plumes of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. In this study, we performed large-scale (L × W × D = 8 m × 4 m × 2 m) flow-tank experiments to examine remedial efficacy of the CRP system. A total of 110 CRP rods (OD × L = 5 cm × 150 cm) were used to construct a well-based CRP system (L × W × D = 3 m × 4 m × 1.5 m) comprising three discrete barriers installed at 1-m interval downstream. Natural sands having oxidant demand of 3.7 g MnO4- kg-1 for 500 mg L-1MnO4- were used as porous media. After MnO4- concentrations were somewhat stabilized (0.5-6.0 mg L-1), trichloroethylene (TCE) plume was flowed through the flow-tank for 53 d by supplying 1.19 m3 d-1 of TCE solution. Mean initial TCE concentrations were 87 μg L-1 for first 20 d and 172 μg L-1 for the next 33 d. During TCE treatment, flow velocity (0.60 m d-1), pH (7.0-8.2), and concentrations of dissolved metals ([Al] = 0.7 mg L-1, [Fe] = 0.01 mg L-1) showed little variations. The MnO2(s) contents in the sandy media measured after the TCE treatment ranged from 21 to 26 mg kg-1, slightly increased from mean baseline value of 17 mg kg-1. Strengths of the TCE plume considerably diminished by the CRP system. For the 87 μg L-1 plume, TCE concentrations decreased by 38% (53), 67% (29), and 74% (23 μg L-1) after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd barriers, respectively. For the 172 μg L-1 plume, TCE concentrations decreased by 27% (125), 46% (93), and 65% (61 μg L-1) after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd barriers, respectively. Incomplete destruction of TCE plume was attributed to the lack of lateral dispersion in the unpumped well-based barrier system. Development of delivery systems that can facilitate lateral spreading and mixing of permanganate with contaminant plume is warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)745-750
Number of pages6
JournalChemosphere
Volume74
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Feb 1

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Trichloroethylene
Groundwater
trichloroethylene
plume
groundwater
Potassium Permanganate
reactive barrier
Oxidants
oxidant
Flow velocity
flow velocity
Potassium
Porous materials
porous medium
Sand
potassium
Metals
Impurities
sand

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

Lee, B. S., Kim, J. H., Lee, K. C., Kim, Y. B., Schwartz, F. W., Lee, E. S., ... Lee, M. K. (2009). Efficacy of controlled-release KMnO4 (CRP) for controlling dissolved TCE plume in groundwater: A large flow-tank study. Chemosphere, 74(6), 745-750. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.10.062
Lee, Byung Sun ; Kim, Jeong Hee ; Lee, Ki Churl ; Kim, Yang Bin ; Schwartz, Franklin W. ; Lee, Eung Seok ; Woo, Nam Chil ; Lee, Myoung Ki. / Efficacy of controlled-release KMnO4 (CRP) for controlling dissolved TCE plume in groundwater : A large flow-tank study. In: Chemosphere. 2009 ; Vol. 74, No. 6. pp. 745-750.
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abstract = "A well-based, reactive barrier system using controlled-release potassium permanganate (CRP system) was recently developed as a long-term treatment option for dilute plumes of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. In this study, we performed large-scale (L × W × D = 8 m × 4 m × 2 m) flow-tank experiments to examine remedial efficacy of the CRP system. A total of 110 CRP rods (OD × L = 5 cm × 150 cm) were used to construct a well-based CRP system (L × W × D = 3 m × 4 m × 1.5 m) comprising three discrete barriers installed at 1-m interval downstream. Natural sands having oxidant demand of 3.7 g MnO4- kg-1 for 500 mg L-1MnO4- were used as porous media. After MnO4- concentrations were somewhat stabilized (0.5-6.0 mg L-1), trichloroethylene (TCE) plume was flowed through the flow-tank for 53 d by supplying 1.19 m3 d-1 of TCE solution. Mean initial TCE concentrations were 87 μg L-1 for first 20 d and 172 μg L-1 for the next 33 d. During TCE treatment, flow velocity (0.60 m d-1), pH (7.0-8.2), and concentrations of dissolved metals ([Al] = 0.7 mg L-1, [Fe] = 0.01 mg L-1) showed little variations. The MnO2(s) contents in the sandy media measured after the TCE treatment ranged from 21 to 26 mg kg-1, slightly increased from mean baseline value of 17 mg kg-1. Strengths of the TCE plume considerably diminished by the CRP system. For the 87 μg L-1 plume, TCE concentrations decreased by 38{\%} (53), 67{\%} (29), and 74{\%} (23 μg L-1) after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd barriers, respectively. For the 172 μg L-1 plume, TCE concentrations decreased by 27{\%} (125), 46{\%} (93), and 65{\%} (61 μg L-1) after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd barriers, respectively. Incomplete destruction of TCE plume was attributed to the lack of lateral dispersion in the unpumped well-based barrier system. Development of delivery systems that can facilitate lateral spreading and mixing of permanganate with contaminant plume is warranted.",
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Efficacy of controlled-release KMnO4 (CRP) for controlling dissolved TCE plume in groundwater : A large flow-tank study. / Lee, Byung Sun; Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Ki Churl; Kim, Yang Bin; Schwartz, Franklin W.; Lee, Eung Seok; Woo, Nam Chil; Lee, Myoung Ki.

In: Chemosphere, Vol. 74, No. 6, 01.02.2009, p. 745-750.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Lee, Byung Sun

AU - Kim, Jeong Hee

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AU - Kim, Yang Bin

AU - Schwartz, Franklin W.

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AU - Woo, Nam Chil

AU - Lee, Myoung Ki

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N2 - A well-based, reactive barrier system using controlled-release potassium permanganate (CRP system) was recently developed as a long-term treatment option for dilute plumes of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. In this study, we performed large-scale (L × W × D = 8 m × 4 m × 2 m) flow-tank experiments to examine remedial efficacy of the CRP system. A total of 110 CRP rods (OD × L = 5 cm × 150 cm) were used to construct a well-based CRP system (L × W × D = 3 m × 4 m × 1.5 m) comprising three discrete barriers installed at 1-m interval downstream. Natural sands having oxidant demand of 3.7 g MnO4- kg-1 for 500 mg L-1MnO4- were used as porous media. After MnO4- concentrations were somewhat stabilized (0.5-6.0 mg L-1), trichloroethylene (TCE) plume was flowed through the flow-tank for 53 d by supplying 1.19 m3 d-1 of TCE solution. Mean initial TCE concentrations were 87 μg L-1 for first 20 d and 172 μg L-1 for the next 33 d. During TCE treatment, flow velocity (0.60 m d-1), pH (7.0-8.2), and concentrations of dissolved metals ([Al] = 0.7 mg L-1, [Fe] = 0.01 mg L-1) showed little variations. The MnO2(s) contents in the sandy media measured after the TCE treatment ranged from 21 to 26 mg kg-1, slightly increased from mean baseline value of 17 mg kg-1. Strengths of the TCE plume considerably diminished by the CRP system. For the 87 μg L-1 plume, TCE concentrations decreased by 38% (53), 67% (29), and 74% (23 μg L-1) after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd barriers, respectively. For the 172 μg L-1 plume, TCE concentrations decreased by 27% (125), 46% (93), and 65% (61 μg L-1) after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd barriers, respectively. Incomplete destruction of TCE plume was attributed to the lack of lateral dispersion in the unpumped well-based barrier system. Development of delivery systems that can facilitate lateral spreading and mixing of permanganate with contaminant plume is warranted.

AB - A well-based, reactive barrier system using controlled-release potassium permanganate (CRP system) was recently developed as a long-term treatment option for dilute plumes of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. In this study, we performed large-scale (L × W × D = 8 m × 4 m × 2 m) flow-tank experiments to examine remedial efficacy of the CRP system. A total of 110 CRP rods (OD × L = 5 cm × 150 cm) were used to construct a well-based CRP system (L × W × D = 3 m × 4 m × 1.5 m) comprising three discrete barriers installed at 1-m interval downstream. Natural sands having oxidant demand of 3.7 g MnO4- kg-1 for 500 mg L-1MnO4- were used as porous media. After MnO4- concentrations were somewhat stabilized (0.5-6.0 mg L-1), trichloroethylene (TCE) plume was flowed through the flow-tank for 53 d by supplying 1.19 m3 d-1 of TCE solution. Mean initial TCE concentrations were 87 μg L-1 for first 20 d and 172 μg L-1 for the next 33 d. During TCE treatment, flow velocity (0.60 m d-1), pH (7.0-8.2), and concentrations of dissolved metals ([Al] = 0.7 mg L-1, [Fe] = 0.01 mg L-1) showed little variations. The MnO2(s) contents in the sandy media measured after the TCE treatment ranged from 21 to 26 mg kg-1, slightly increased from mean baseline value of 17 mg kg-1. Strengths of the TCE plume considerably diminished by the CRP system. For the 87 μg L-1 plume, TCE concentrations decreased by 38% (53), 67% (29), and 74% (23 μg L-1) after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd barriers, respectively. For the 172 μg L-1 plume, TCE concentrations decreased by 27% (125), 46% (93), and 65% (61 μg L-1) after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd barriers, respectively. Incomplete destruction of TCE plume was attributed to the lack of lateral dispersion in the unpumped well-based barrier system. Development of delivery systems that can facilitate lateral spreading and mixing of permanganate with contaminant plume is warranted.

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