Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are the most potent osteoinductive growth factors. Clinically utilized BMP-2 uses a type-I collagen scaffold as a carrier. Here we hypothesized that an apatite coating on a type-I collagen scaffold would prolong the BMP-2 release period and enhance bone regeneration in calvarial defects in mice. Apatite coating was achieved by incubating collagen scaffolds in simulated body fluid. BMP-2 release kinetics and bioactivity were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and alkaline phosphatase activity measurement of cultured osteoblasts. Computed tomography and histomorphometry were performed eight weeks after various doses of BMP-2 were delivered to mouse calvarial defects using either non-modified or apatite-coated collagen scaffolds. Apatite-coated collagen scaffolds released 91.8 ± 11.5% of the loaded BMP-2 over 13 days in vitro, whereas non-modified collagen scaffolds released 98.3± 2.2% over the initial one day. The in vivo study showed that BMP-2 delivery with apatite-coated collagen scaffolds resulted in a significantly greater bone formation area and higher bone density than that with non-modified collagen scaffolds. This study suggests that simple apatite coating on collagen scaffolds can enhance the bone regeneration efficacy of BMP-2 released from collagen scaffolds.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering