Highly transparent and efficient red phosphorescent inverted top-emitting organic light emitting diodes were investigated by using a surface-modified tungsten oxide (WO3)/silver/WO3 (WAW) anode. A thin buckminsterfullerene (C60) dipole layer was introduced for the surface treatment of the WAW anode, and the thickness of the surface-modified WO3 was controlled to optimize the WAW anode for hole injection. The optimum thickness of the surface-modified WO3 was 5 nm, and the C60 dipole layer further improved the hole injection from the WAW anode to the hole transport layer.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Materials Science(all)
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering