Electrical activation of implanted single crystal germanium substrates

Craig Jasper, Leonard Rubin, Chad Lindfors, Kevin S. Jones, Jungwoo Oh

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We studied the electrical activation of ion implanted dopants in single crystal germanium substrates. Germanium was implanted with arsenic, phosphorus or boron, passivated, and rapid thermal annealed at various temperatures. Several surface passivation processes were explored to understand their influence on the activation process. Sheet resistances was measured by a four-point probe and Hall mobility was used to measure and quantify the activation fraction of dopant in the substrates. A sheet resistance minimum was achieved for all implanted dopants between 450 and 600°C. Variability in the passivation processes had a very large impact in the final sheet resistance values. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry demonstrated that there was a loss of dopant and or germanium during the annealing process. For near surface implants, an increase in sheet resistance corresponds to a decrease in activation percentage and an observed dopant loss. Deeper implants are not as susceptible to surface effects. Proper passivation of the germanium surface is critical for achieving low sheet resistance. Acceptable sheet resistances were obtained for the manufacturing of optical devices.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2002 14th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, IIT 2002 - Proceedings
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Pages548-551
Number of pages4
Volume22-27-September-2002
ISBN (Electronic)0780371550
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2002 Jan 1
Event2002 14th IEEE International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, IIT 2002 - Taos, United States
Duration: 2002 Sep 222002 Sep 27

Other

Other2002 14th IEEE International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, IIT 2002
CountryUnited States
CityTaos
Period02/9/2202/9/27

Fingerprint

Germanium
Sheet resistance
germanium
Chemical activation
Single crystals
activation
Doping (additives)
single crystals
Substrates
Passivation
passivity
Hall mobility
Boron
Arsenic
Secondary ion mass spectrometry
Optical devices
arsenic
Phosphorus
secondary ion mass spectrometry
phosphorus

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

Jasper, C., Rubin, L., Lindfors, C., Jones, K. S., & Oh, J. (2002). Electrical activation of implanted single crystal germanium substrates. In 2002 14th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, IIT 2002 - Proceedings (Vol. 22-27-September-2002, pp. 548-551). [1258063] Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1109/IIT.2002.1258063
Jasper, Craig ; Rubin, Leonard ; Lindfors, Chad ; Jones, Kevin S. ; Oh, Jungwoo. / Electrical activation of implanted single crystal germanium substrates. 2002 14th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, IIT 2002 - Proceedings. Vol. 22-27-September-2002 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2002. pp. 548-551
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Jasper, C, Rubin, L, Lindfors, C, Jones, KS & Oh, J 2002, Electrical activation of implanted single crystal germanium substrates. in 2002 14th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, IIT 2002 - Proceedings. vol. 22-27-September-2002, 1258063, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., pp. 548-551, 2002 14th IEEE International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, IIT 2002, Taos, United States, 02/9/22. https://doi.org/10.1109/IIT.2002.1258063

Electrical activation of implanted single crystal germanium substrates. / Jasper, Craig; Rubin, Leonard; Lindfors, Chad; Jones, Kevin S.; Oh, Jungwoo.

2002 14th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, IIT 2002 - Proceedings. Vol. 22-27-September-2002 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2002. p. 548-551 1258063.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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N2 - We studied the electrical activation of ion implanted dopants in single crystal germanium substrates. Germanium was implanted with arsenic, phosphorus or boron, passivated, and rapid thermal annealed at various temperatures. Several surface passivation processes were explored to understand their influence on the activation process. Sheet resistances was measured by a four-point probe and Hall mobility was used to measure and quantify the activation fraction of dopant in the substrates. A sheet resistance minimum was achieved for all implanted dopants between 450 and 600°C. Variability in the passivation processes had a very large impact in the final sheet resistance values. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry demonstrated that there was a loss of dopant and or germanium during the annealing process. For near surface implants, an increase in sheet resistance corresponds to a decrease in activation percentage and an observed dopant loss. Deeper implants are not as susceptible to surface effects. Proper passivation of the germanium surface is critical for achieving low sheet resistance. Acceptable sheet resistances were obtained for the manufacturing of optical devices.

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Jasper C, Rubin L, Lindfors C, Jones KS, Oh J. Electrical activation of implanted single crystal germanium substrates. In 2002 14th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, IIT 2002 - Proceedings. Vol. 22-27-September-2002. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. 2002. p. 548-551. 1258063 https://doi.org/10.1109/IIT.2002.1258063