Transdermal drug delivery is the way to transport drug carriers, such as nanoparticles, across the skin barrier to the dermal and/or subcutaneous layer. In order to control the transdermal drug delivery process, based on the heterogeneous and nonlinear structures of the skin tissues, we developed a novel electromechanical method combining in vivo local skin impedance probing, subcutaneous micro-injection of colloidal nanoparticles, and transcutaneous electrical stimulation. Experiments on the nude mice using in vivo fluorescence imaging exhibited significantly different apparent diffusion patterns of the nanoparticles depending on the skin impedance: Anisotropic and isotropic patterns were observed upon injection into low and high impedance points, respectively. This result implies that the physical complexity in living tissues may cause anisotropic diffusion of drug carriers, and can be used as a parameter for controlling drug delivery process. This method also can be combined with microneedle-based drug release systems, micro-fabricated needle-electrodes, and/or advanced in vivo targeting/imaging technologies using nanoparticles.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgement This study was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government’s Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST) in 2010 (No. 2010–0025289) and research funds from Yonsei University College of Medicine. The authors thank Dr. Jawoong Lee (CTO; ZeeAnn Co., Ltd., Hanam, Korea) and Mr. Seung-soo Kim (CEO; Hammtek Korea, Inc., Seoul, Korea) for their technical advice and valuable discussions.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering
- Molecular Biology