Electronic structures with the copper iodide (CuI) interlayer in organic electronic devices were measured and its strong electron-withdrawing properties were revealed. In situ ultraviolet and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the interfacial electronic structures of N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(1-naphthyl)-1,1′-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine (NPB)/CuI/indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and tris-(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum (Alq3)/CuI/ITO as a representative hole- and electron-transport material. The large work function of the CuI interlayer induces electron transfer from both molecules and ITO to CuI. As a result, CuI dramatically reduces the hole injection barrier (HIB) from ITO to NPB and Alq3 layers. Notably, CuI assists molecular ordering of the NPB layer, which would increase the intermolecular interaction, so would enhance the charge transport properties. Simultaneous enhancement in HIB and molecular ordering with the CuI interlayer would improve the device performance.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Nano-Material Technology Development Program and a research project of the National Research Foundation of Korea (Grant Nos. 2012M3A7B4049801 and 2013R1A1A1004778 ) and Samsung Display Company .
© 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Materials Chemistry