Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Premenstrual Syndrome in Female College Students in East Asia: A Multi-Country Study

Jeongok Park, Hyojin Lee, Jung Jae Lee, Somi Park, Hyeonkyeong Lee, Sujin Nam, Sejeong Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: This study aimed to explore the severity of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and to examine associated factors with PMS among East Asian female college students with regard to endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC). Patients and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional design. An online survey was completed by 520 female college students in Hong Kong and Korea. The structured questionnaire included items measuring knowledge of EDCs, actions taken and willingness to minimize exposure to EDCs, interest in EDCs, prior education on EDCs, life stress, severity of PMS, and general and health-related characteristics. Multiple logistic regressions were performed. Results: The prevalence of severe PMS among the participants was 54.6%. Factors associated with severe PMS included a self-reported heavy menstrual flow, underweight, obesity, interpersonal relationship stress, actions taken to minimize exposure to EDCs, and interest in EDCs. Conclusion: This study provided the evidence of a negative association between severe PMS and the actions taken to minimize exposure to EDCs. To alleviate symptoms of PMS among young female adults, practical interventions, such as education to overcome barriers to preventing exposure to EDCs, are suggested.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)167-177
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Women's Health
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by the 2018 International Joint Research Grant from Mo-Im Kim Nursing Research Institute (6-2018-0120), and the Brain Korea 21 FOUR Project funded by National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea, Yonsei University College of Nursing (F21JB7504007).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Park et al.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • Maternity and Midwifery


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