Radio frequency energy transfer (RET) has been proposed as a promising solution to power sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, RET has a significant drawback to be directly applied to WSNs, i.e., unfairness in the achieved throughput among sensor nodes due to the difference of their energy harvesting rates that strongly depend on the distance between the energy emitting node and the energy harvesting nodes. The unfairness problem should be properly taken into account to mitigate the drawback caused from the features of RET. To resolve this issue, in this paper, we propose a medium access control (MAC) protocol for WSNs based on RET with two distinguishing features: energy adaptive (EA) duty cycle management that adaptively manages the duty cycle of sensor nodes according to their energy harvesting rates and EA contention algorithm that adaptively manages contentions among sensor nodes considering fairness. Through analysis and simulation, we show that our MAC protocol works well under the RET environment. Finally, to show the feasibility of WSNs with RET, we test our MAC protocol with a prototype system in a real environment.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering