The use of low-resolution digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters (DACs and ADCs) significantly benefits energy efficiency (EE) at the cost of high quantization noise for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. This paper considers a precoding optimization problem for maximizing EE in quantized downlink massive MIMO systems. To this end, we jointly optimize an active antenna set, precoding vectors, and allocated power; yet acquiring such joint optimal solution is challenging. To resolve this challenge, we decompose the problem into precoding direction and power optimization problems. For precoding direction, we characterize the first-order optimality condition, which entails the effects of quantization distortion and antenna selection. We cast the derived condition as a functional eigenvalue problem, wherein finding the principal eigenvector attains the best local optimal point. To this end, we propose generalized power iteration based algorithm. To optimize precoding power for given precoding direction, we adopt a gradient descent algorithm for the EE maximization. Alternating these two methods, our algorithm identifies a joint solution of the active antenna set, the precoding direction, and allocated power. In simulations, the proposed methods provide considerable performance gains. Our results suggest that a few-bit DACs are sufficient for achieving high EE in massive MIMO systems.
|Number of pages||15|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications|
|Publication status||Published - 2022 Sept 1|
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2002-2012 IEEE.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Computer Science Applications
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Applied Mathematics