The electronic structure of a narrow band gap small molecule ditolylaminothienyl–benzothiadiazole–dicyanovinylene (DTDCTB), possessing a donor-acceptor-acceptor configuration, was investigated with regard to its application as an efficient donor material in organic photovoltaics (OPVs). The interfacial orbital alignment of C 60 /DTDCTB/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was determined using in situ ultraviolet photoelectron and inverse photoelectron spectroscopic methods. The ionization energy and electron affinity values of DTDCTB were measured to be 5.27 eV and 3.65 eV, respectively, and thus a very small transport gap of 1.62 eV was evaluated. Large band bending of DTDCTB on PEDOT:PSS was observed, resulting in a low hole extraction barrier. Additionally, the photovoltaic gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital level of the DTDCTB donor and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level of the C 60 acceptor was estimated to be 1.30 eV, which is known to be the theoretical maximum open-circuit voltage in OPVs employing the C 60 /DTDCTB active layer. The unique electronic structures of DTDCTB contributed toward the recently reported excellent power conversion efficiencies of OPVs containing a DTDCTB donor material.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (Grant No. 2015R1C1A1A01055026 and 2012M3A7B4049801), Samsung Display Company, and Defense Acquisition Program Administration (DAPA), and the Agency for Defense Development (ADD), and an Industry-Academy joint research programme between Samsung Electronics and Yonsei University.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Surfaces and Interfaces
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films