Flexible perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted significant interest as promising candidates for portable and wearable devices. Copper nanowires (CuNWs) are promising candidates for transparent conductive electrodes for flexible PSCs because of their excellent conductivity, flexibility, and cost-effectiveness. However, because of the thermal/chemical instability of CuNWs, they require a protective layer for application in PSCs. Previous PSCs with CuNW-based electrodes generally exhibited poor performances compared with their indium tin oxide-based counterparts because of the neglect of the interfacial energetics between the electron transport layer (ETL) and CuNWs. Herein, an Al-doped ZnO (AZO) protective layer fabricated using atomic layer deposition is introduced. The AZO/CuNW-based composite electrode exhibits improved thermal/chemical stability and favorable band alignment between the ETL and CuNWs, based on the Al dopant concentration tuning. As a result, the Al content gradient AZO (g-AZO), composed of three successively deposited AZO layers, leads to highly efficient flexible PSCs with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.18%, whereas the PCE of PSCs with a non-g-AZO layer is 12.34%. This improvement can be attributed to the efficient electron extraction and reduced charge recombination. Furthermore, flexible PSCs based on g-AZO-based composite electrodes retain their initial PCE, even after 600 bending cycles, demonstrating excellent mechanical stability.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)