Background: Early-onset epileptic encephalopathies with burst suppression (EOEE-BS) are a group of neonatal epileptic syndromes characterized by intractable epilepsy and severe psychomotor delay with structural and metabolic factors accounting for major etiologies. However, recent advances in gene sequencing have identified that genetic factors might also play a significant role in the development of EOEE-BS. Herein, we used various genetic tests to identify pathogenic genetic variants in EOEE-BS irrespective of structural malformations and analyzed the clinical features associated with each different etiology. Methods: A total of 48 patients with EOEE-BS were included. Except for patients with severe hypoxic damage, patients with structural malformations were included in our patient cohort. Clinical features of the patients were reviewed, and etiological diagnoses were made based on several genetic tests, metabolic studies, and radiological findings. Result: A genetic diagnosis was made in 31 (64.6 %) patients, with the most commonly diagnosed gene being STXBP1 (n = 13, 27.1 %), followed by KCNQ2 (n = 5, 10.4 %), SCN2A (n = 5, 10.4 %), DEPDC5 (n = 3, 6.3 %), CASK (n = 1, 2.1 %), CDKL5 (n = 1, 2.1 %), GNAO1 (n = 1, 2.1 %), SLC6A8 (n = 1, 2.1 %), and LIS1 deletion (n = 1, 2.1 %). Other than the classification of epilepsy syndrome, no clinical features were associated with the genetically diagnosed group. Among eight patients with structural malformations, genetic diagnosis was achieved in five (62.5 %), and those patients had pathogenic mutations in DEPDC5 and CASK or LIS1 deletion, indicating the significance of gene sequencing irrespective of structural abnormalities. Treatment responses to a variety of medications and the ketogenic diet differed by etiology, and surgical resection proved to be effective in patients with cortical dysplasia. Conclusion: Genetic etiologies are an important factor in EOEE-BS irrespective of structural malformations and the treatment options may differ by etiology.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by a faculty research grant of Yonsei University College of Medicine and grants from the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI) , funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant numbers: 6-2019-0075 and HI18C0586 ).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Neurology