Intranasal delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to the olfactory bulb is a promising approach for treating olfactory injury. Additionally, using the homing phenomenon of MSCs may be clinically applicable for developing therapeutic cell carriers. Herein, using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and a permanent magnet, we demonstrated an enhanced homing effect in an olfactory model. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with rhodamine B (IRBs) had a diameter of 5.22 ± 0.9 nm and ζ-potential of +15.2 ± 0.3 mV. IRB concentration of 15 μg/mL was injected with SPIONs into MSCs, as cell viability significantly decreased when 20 μg/mL was used (p ≤ 0.005) compared to in controls. The cells exhibited magnetic attraction in vitro. SPIONs also stimulated CXCR4 (C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4) expression and CXCR4-SDF-1 (Stromal cell-derived factor 1) signaling in MSCs. After injecting magnetized MSCs, these cells were detected in the damaged olfactory bulb one week after injury on one side, and there was a significant increase compared to when non-magnetized MSCs were injected. Our results suggest that SPIONs-labeled MSCs migrated to injured olfactory tissue through guidance with a permanent magnet, resulting in better homing effects of MSCs in vivo, and that iron oxide nanoparticles can be used for internalization, various biological applications, and regenerative studies.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgments: This research was supported by the Basic Science research program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2015R1C1A1A02036354; 2015R1C1A1A01052592; 2016M3A9B4919711), Gangwon Institute for Regional Program Evaluation grant funded by the Korean government (Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy) (No. R0005797), and by the Yonsei University Wonju Campus Future-Leading Research Initiative of 2018 (2018-62-0054).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry