The harvesting of photosynthetic electrons (PEs) directly from photosynthetic complexes has been demonstrated over the past decade. However, their limited efficiency and stability have hampered further practical development. For example, despite its importance, the interfacial electron transfer between the photosynthetic apparatus and the electrode has received little attention. In this study, we modified electrodes with RuO2 nanosheets to enhance the extraction of PEs from thylakoids, and the PE transfer was promoted by proton adsorption and surface polarity characteristics. The adsorbed protons maintained the potential of an electrode more positive, and the surface polarity enhanced thylakoid attachment to the electrode in addition to promoting ensemble docking between the redox species and the electrode. The RuO2 bioanode exhibited a five times larger current density and a four times larger power density than the Au bioanode. Last, the electric calculators were successfully powered by photosynthetic energy using a RuO2 bioanode.
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