The surface molecular chemistry, such as amine functionality, of biomaterials plays a crucial role in the osteogenic activity of relevant cells and tissues during hard tissue regeneration. Here, we examined the possibilities of creating amine functionalities on the surface of titanium by using the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAPPJ) method with humidified ammonia, and the effects on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) were investigated. Titanium samples were subjected to NTAPPJ treatments using nitrogen (N-P), air (A-P), or humidified ammonia (NA-P) as the plasma gas, while control (C-P) samples were not subjected to plasma treatment. After plasma exposure, all treatment groups showed increased hydrophilicity and had more attached cells than the C-P. Among the plasma-treated samples, the A-P and NA-P showed surface oxygen functionalities and exhibited greater cell proliferation than the C-P and N-P. The NA-P additionally showed surface amine-related functionalities and exhibited a higher level of alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin expression than the other samples. The results can be explained by increases in fibronectin absorption and focal adhesion kinase gene expression on the NA-P samples. These findings suggest that NTAPPJ technology with humidified ammonia as a gas source has clinical potential for hard tissue generation.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by the Yonsei University College of Dentistry (6-2019-0021) and by the program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (NRF-2016K1A4A3914113).
Acknowledgments: Plasma device has been supported by Kwangwoon University. Special thanks to Yong Hee Kim for his support with plasma device.
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry