Enhanced production of multi-strange hadrons in high-multiplicity proton-proton collisions

J. Adam, D. Adamov, M. M. Aggarwal, G. Aglieri Rinella, M. Agnello, N. Agrawal, Z. Ahammed, S. Ahmad, S. U. Ahn, S. Aiola, A. Akindinov, S. N. Alam, D. S.D. Albuquerque, D. Aleksandrov, B. Alessandro, D. Alexandre, R. Alfaro Molina, A. Alici, A. Alkin, J. AlmeT. Alt, S. Altinpinar, I. Altsybeev, C. Alves Garcia Prado, M. An, C. Andrei, H. A. Andrews, A. Andronic, V. Anguelov, T. Anticic, F. Antinori, P. Antonioli, L. Aphecetche, H. Appelshäuser, S. Arcelli, R. Arnaldi, O. W. Arnold, I. C. Arsene, M. Arslandok, B. Audurier, A. Augustinus, R. Averbeck, M. D. Azmi, A. Badalà, Y. W. Baek, S. Bagnasco, R. Bailhache, R. Bala, S. Balasubramanian, A. Baldisseri, R. C. Baral, A. M. Barbano, R. Barbera, F. Barile, G. G. Barnafldi, L. S. Barnby, V. Barret, P. Bartalini, K. Barth, J. Bartke, E. Bartsch, M. Basile, N. Bastid, S. Basu, B. Bathen, G. Batigne, A. Batista Camejo, B. Batyunya, P. C. Batzing, I. G. Bearden, H. Beck, C. Bedda, N. K. Behera, I. Belikov, F. Bellini, H. Bello Martinez, R. Bellwied, R. Belmont, E. Belmont-Moreno, L. G.E. Beltran, V. Belyaev, G. Bencedi, S. Beole, I. Berceanu, A. Bercuci, Y. Berdnikov, D. Berenyi, R. A. Bertens, D. Berzano, L. Betev, A. Bhasin, I. R. Bhat, A. K. Bhati, B. Bhattacharjee, J. Bhom, L. Bianchi, N. Bianchi, C. Bianchin, J. Bielcík, J. Bielcíková, A. Bilandzic, G. Biro, R. Biswas, S. Biswas, S. Bjelogrlic, J. T. Blair, D. Blau, C. Blume, F. Bock, A. Bogdanov, H. Bøggild, L. Boldizsár, M. Bombara, M. Bonora, J. Book, H. Borel, A. Borissov, M. Borri, F. Bossú, E. Botta, C. Bourjau, P. Braun-Munzinger, M. Bregant, T. Breitner, T. A. Broker, T. A. Browning, M. Broz, E. J. Brucken, E. Bruna, G. E. Bruno, D. Budnikov, H. Buesching, S. Bufalino, P. Buncic, O. Busch, Z. Buthelezi, J. B. Butt, J. T. Buxton, J. Cabala, D. Caarri, X. Cai, H. Caines, L. Calero Diaz, A. Caliva, E. Calvo Villar, P. Camerini, F. Carena, W. Carena, F. Carnesecchi, J. Castillo Castellanos, A. J. Castro, E. A.R. Casula, C. Ceballos Sanchez, J. Cepila, P. Cerello, J. Cerkala, B. Chang, S. Chapeland, M. Chartier, J. L. Charvet, S. Chattopadhyay, S. Chattopadhyay, A. Chauvin, V. Chelnokov, M. Cherney, C. Cheshkov, B. Cheynis, V. Chibante Barroso, D. D. Chinellato, S. Cho, P. Chochula, K. Choi, M. Chojnacki, S. Choudhury, P. Christakoglou, C. H. Christensen, P. Christiansen, T. Chujo, S. U. Chung, C. Cicalo, L. Cifarelli, F. Cindolo, J. Cleymans, F. Colamaria, D. Colella, A. Collu, M. Colocci, G. Conesa Balbastre, Conesa Z. Del Valle, M. E. Connors, J. G. Contreras, T. M. Cormier, Y. Corrales Morales, I. Cortés Maldonado, P. Cortese, M. R. Cosentino, F. Costa, J. Crkovska, P. Crochet, R. Cruz Albino, E. Cuautle, L. Cunqueiro, T. Dahms, A. Dainese, M. C. Danisch, A. Danu, D. Das, I. Das, S. Das, A. Dash, S. Dash, S. De, A. De Caro, G. De Cataldo, C. De Conti, J. De Cuveland, A. De Falco, D. De Gruttola, N. De Marco, S. De Pasquale, R. D. De Souza, A. Deisting, A. Delo, E. Dénes, C. Deplano, P. Dhankher, D. Di Bari, A. Di Mauro, P. 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Abstract

At sufficiently high temperature and energy density, nuclear matter undergoes a transition to a phase in which quarks and gluons are not confined: the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Such an exotic state of strongly interacting quantum chromodynamics matter is produced in the laboratory in heavy nuclei high-energy collisions, where an enhanced production of strange hadrons is observed. Strangeness enhancement, originally proposed as a signature of QGP formation in nuclear collisions, is more pronounced for multi-strange baryons. Several effects typical of heavy-ion phenomenology have been observed in high-multiplicity proton-proton (pp) collisions, but the enhanced production of multi-strange particles has not been reported so far. Here we present the first observation of strangeness enhancement in high-multiplicity proton-proton collisions. We find that the integrated yields of strange and multi-strange particles, relative to pions, increases significantly with the event charged-particle multiplicity. The measurements are in remarkable agreement with the p-Pb collision results, indicating that the phenomenon is related to the final system created in the collision. In high-multiplicity events strangeness production reaches values similar to those observed in Pb-Pb collisions, where a QGP is formed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)535-539
Number of pages5
JournalNature Physics
Volume13
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jun 2

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The ALICE Collaboration would like to thank all its engineers and technicians for their invaluable contributions to the construction of the experiment and the CERN accelerator teams for the outstanding performance of the LHC complex. The ALICE Collaboration gratefully acknowledges the resources and support provided by all Grid centres and the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) collaboration. The ALICE Collaboration acknowledges the following funding agencies for their support in building and running the ALICE detector: State Committee of Science, World Federation of Scientists (WFS) and Swiss Fonds Kidagan, Armenia; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Ministry of Science & Technology of China (MSTC), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and Ministry of Education of China (MOEC)’’; Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of Croatia and Unity through Knowledge Fund, Croatia; Ministry of Education and Youth of the Czech Republic; Danish Natural Science Research Council, the Carlsberg Foundation and the Danish National Research Foundation; The European Research Council under the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme; Helsinki Institute of Physics and the Academy of Finland; French CNRS-IN2P3, the ‘Region Pays de Loire’, ‘Region Alsace’, ‘Region Auvergne’ and CEA, France; German Bundesministerium fur Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie (BMBF) and the Helmholtz Association; General Secretariat for Research and Technology, Ministry of Development, Greece; National Research, Development and Innovation Office (NKFIH), Hungary; Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi; Department of Atomic Energy and Department of Science and Technology of the Government of India; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) and Centro Fermi - Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ‘Enrico Fermi’, Italy; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI and MEXT, Japan; National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF); Consejo Nacional de Cienca y Tecnologia (CONACYT), Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico(DGAPA), México, Amerique Latine Formation academique - European Commission (ALFA-EC) and the EPLANET Program (European Particle Physics Latin American Network); Stichting voor Fundamenteel Onderzoek der Materie (FOM) and the Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO), Netherlands; Research Council of Norway (NFR); Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú; National Science Centre, Poland; Ministry of National Education/Institute for Atomic Physics and National Council of Scientific Research in Higher Education (CNCSI-UEFISCDI), Romania; Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna; Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federal Agency of Atomic Energy, Russian Federal Agency for Science and Innovations and The Russian Foundation for Basic Research; Ministry of Education of Slovakia; Department of Science and Technology, South Africa; Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America (EELA), Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO) of Spain, Xunta de Galicia (Consellería de Educación), Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnolgicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Cubaenergía, Cuba, and IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency); Swedish Research Council (VR) and Knut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation (KAW); National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSDTA), Suranaree University of Technology (SUT) and Office of the Higher Education Commission under NRU project of Thailand; Ukraine Ministry of Education and Science; United Kingdom Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC); The United States Department of Energy, the United States National Science Foundation, the State of Texas, and the State of Ohio.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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