The lower cyclic endurance of Phase Change Memory (PCM) devices limits the spread of its applications for reliable memory. The findings reported here show that micro-voids and excess vacancies that are produced during the deposition process and the subsequent growth in sputtered carbon-doped GeSbTe films is one of the major causes of device failure in PCM with cycling. We found that the size of voids in C15(Ge21Sb36Te43) films increased with increasing annealing temperature and the activation energy for the growth rate of voids was determined to be 2.22 eV. The film density, which is closely related to voids, varies with the deposition temperature and sputtering power used. The lower heat of vaporization of elemental Sb and Te compared to that for elemental Ge and C is a major cause of the low density of the film. It was possible to suppress void formation to a considerable extent by optimizing the deposition conditions, which leads to a dramatic enhancement in cyclic endurance by 2 orders of magnitude in PCM devices prepared at 300°C-300W compared to one prepared at 240°C-500W without change of compositions.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was financially supported by the National Research Project for Next Generation MLC PRAM Development by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy(MKE) of Korea (Grant No. 10039200), and the Joint Program for Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. (SEC) - Yonsei University.
© 2016 Author(s).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy(all)