Objectives This work aimed to compare some pharmacological properties of red ginseng extract (RG) and fermented red ginseng extract (FRG). Methods Antinociceptive activity was analysed using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction response. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using acetic acid-induced vascular permeability and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the air pouch, and analysed through the measurement of nitrite content in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cells. Anti-angiogenic activity was determined using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Key findings In-vivo anti-inflammatory activity of FRG was stronger than that of RG in two animal models, vascular permeability and air-pouch models. In the vascular permeability model, the doses of RG and FRG required for half-maximal inhibition (IC50) were 181 and 59 mg/kg, respectively. FRG exhibited significantly stronger antinociceptive activity than RG. In the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction response, the IC50 values of RG and FRG were 153 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. Although both RG and FRG were able to suppress production of nitric oxide in the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells, the suppressive activity of FRG appeared to be stronger than that of RG. However, RG and FRG showed similar anti-angiogenic activity. Conclusions FRG possesses enhanced anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity but similar anti-angiogenic activity than RG.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmaceutical Science