Enhancing immunomodulatory function of red ginseng through fermentation using Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. Lactis LT 19-2

Jae Hwan Kim, Eun Hee Doo, Minju Jeong, Seungil Kim, Yun Yeol Lee, Jaesik Yang, Ji Su Lee, Jong Hun Kim, Ki Won Lee, Chul Sung Huh, Sanguine Byun

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2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Removal of sugar moieties from ginsenosides has been proposed to increase their biological effects in various disease models. In order to identify strains that can increase aglycone contents, we performed a screening using bacteria isolated from the feces of infants focusing on acid tolerance and β-glucosidase activity. We isolated 565 bacteria and selected Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LT 19-2 (LT 19-2), which exhibited the highest β-glucosidase activity with strong acid tolerance. As red ginseng (RG) has been known to exert immunomodulatory functions, we fermented RG using LT 19-2 (FRG) and investigated whether this could alter the aglycone profile of ginsenosides and improve its immunomodulatory effect. FRG increased macrophage activity more potently compared to RG, demonstrated by higher TNF-α and IL-6 production. More importantly, the FRG treatment stimulated the proliferation of mouse splenocytes and increased TNF-α levels in bone marrow-derived macrophages, confirming that the enhanced immunomodulatory function can be recapitulated in primary immune cells. Examination of the molecular mechanism revealed that F-RG could induce phosphorylations of ERK, p38, JNK, and NF-κB. Analysis of the ginsenoside composition showed a decrease in Rb1, Re, Rc, and Rb3, accompanied by an increase in Rd, Rh1, F2, and Rg3, the corresponding aglycone metabolites, in FRG compared to RG. Collectively, LT 19-2 maybe used as a probiotic strain to improve the bioactivity of functional foods through modifying the aglycone/glycoside profile.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1481
JournalNutrients
Volume11
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jul

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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    Kim, J. H., Doo, E. H., Jeong, M., Kim, S., Lee, Y. Y., Yang, J., Lee, J. S., Kim, J. H., Lee, K. W., Huh, C. S., & Byun, S. (2019). Enhancing immunomodulatory function of red ginseng through fermentation using Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. Lactis LT 19-2. Nutrients, 11(7), [1481]. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071481