There is evidence that the luminosities of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) depend on their environments. While the impact of this trend on estimating cosmological parameters is widely acknowledged, the origin of this correlation is still under debate. In order to explore this problem, we first construct the YONSEI (YOnsei Nearby Supernova Evolution Investigation) SN catalog. The catalog consists of 1231 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia over a wide redshift range (0.01 < z < 1.37) from various SN surveys and includes light-curve fit data from two independent light-curve fitters, SALT2 and MLCS2k2. For a sample of 674 host galaxies, we use the stellar mass and the star formation rate data in Kim et al. (2018). We find that SNe Ia in low-mass and star-forming host galaxies are 0.062 ± 0.009 mag and 0.057 ± 0.010 mag fainter than those in high-mass and passive hosts, after light-curve corrections with SALT2 and MLCS2k2, respectively. When only local environments of SNe Ia (e.g., locally star-forming and locally passive) are considered, this luminosity difference increases to 0.081 ± 0.018 mag for SALT2 and 0.072 ± 0.018 mag for MLCS2k2. Considering the significant difference in the mean stellar population age between the two environments, this result suggests that the luminosity evolution of SNe Ia with redshift is most likely the origin of the environmental dependence.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank the referees for helpful comments. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea through grant programs 2017R1A5A1070354 and 2017R1A2B3002919. Y.-L.K. acknowledges support from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Unions Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No. 759194 – USNAC). This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We also utilized the HyperLeda database (http://leda.univ-lyon1.fr).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science