Enzyme-Photocatalyst Tandem Microrobot Powered by Urea for Escherichia coli Biofilm Eradication

Katherine Villa, Hanna Sopha, Jaroslav Zelenka, Martin Motola, Lukas Dekanovsky, Darya Chylii Beketova, Jan M. Macak, Tomáš Ruml, Martin Pumera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Urinary-based infections affect millions of people worldwide. Such bacterial infections are mainly caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) biofilm formation in the bladder and/or urinary catheters. Herein, the authors present a hybrid enzyme/photocatalytic microrobot, based on urease-immobilized TiO2/CdS nanotube bundles, that can swim in urea as a biocompatible fuel and respond to visible light. Upon illumination for 2 h, these microrobots are able to remove almost 90% of bacterial biofilm, due to the generation of reactive radicals, while bare TiO2/CdS photocatalysts (non-motile) or urease-coated microrobots in the dark do not show any toxic effect. These results indicate a synergistic effect between the self-propulsion provided by the enzyme and the photocatalytic activity induced under light stimuli. This work provides a photo-biocatalytic approach for the design of efficient light-driven microrobots with promising applications in microbiology and biomedicine.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2106612
JournalSmall
Volume18
Issue number36
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Sep 8

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Ministery of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic, in particular by the project Advanced Functional Nanorobots (reg. no. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_003/0000444 financed by the EFRR) and NANOBIO (CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/17_048/0007421). J.Z. and T.R. were supported by grant no. 21–16084J given by the Czech Science Foundation. The authors thank to Michaela Kubáňová for the determination of enzymatic activity, Tomáš Přibyl for the work with cell cultures, Mario Urso for UV Vis and fluorescence measurements, and Ludek Hromadko for XRD measurements.

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Ministery of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic, in particular by the project Advanced Functional Nanorobots (reg. no. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_003/0000444 financed by the EFRR) and NANOBIO (CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/17_048/0007421). J.Z. and T.R. were supported by grant no. 21–16084J given by the Czech Science Foundation. The authors thank to Michaela Kubáňová for the determination of enzymatic activity, Tomáš Přibyl for the work with cell cultures, Mario Urso for UV Vis and fluorescence measurements, and Ludek Hromadko for XRD measurements.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors. Small published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biomaterials
  • Materials Science(all)

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