Subsequent to the increasing use of immunosuppressant therapy, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP) has emerged as a life-threatening condition in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- negative patients. We investigated changes in epidemiological and clinical characteristics among PcP cases with and without HIV infections. Data of 424 patients diagnosed with PcP in a 2,700-bed Korean tertiary care hospital between February 2003 and April 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. The study included patients with compatible clinical findings in whom PcP was confirmed via direct immunofluorescence assay. The annual average number of cases increased from 12.2 (initial 5-year period) to 42.2 (recent 5-year period). In HIV-negative patients, hematologic malignancy (34.8%) and solid organ transplantation (32.9%) were the most frequent major underlying conditions, and immunosuppressive therapies including corticosteroids (342/362, 94.5%) and chemotherapy (122/362, 33.7%) were significantly associated with PcP infection (p ＜ 0.001 for both). The incidence of PcP has continued to increase among non-HIV-infected immunocompromised patients in recent years.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases