The aim of the study is to investigate the association between olfactory dysfunction (OD), hearing loss, and dysphonia. The cross-sectional data for 17,984 adults who completed the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2010-12) were analyzed. OD, hearing loss, and dysphonia were assessed using self-reporting questionnaires. The association of OD with hearing loss and dysphonia was evaluated. Hearing loss and dysphonia were significantly more prevalent in patients with OD than in those without OD (hearing loss, 28.1% vs 11.3%; dysphonia, 11.1% vs 5.9%; both P < .0001). After adjusting for confounders, including mental stress and metabolic syndrome, the risk of OD was significantly associated with hearing loss and dysphonia, and was greater in those with combined hearing loss and dysphonia than in both patients without these dysfunctions and in those with a single dysfunction (odds ratio 3.115, 95% confidence interval 1.973-4.917). OD was significantly associated with hearing loss and dysphonia.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
JHP and HKB contributed equally to this study This work was supported by the Soonchunhyang University Research Fund. The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. aDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan, bDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, cDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon, dDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, eDepartment of Biostatistics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, fDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon, gDepartment of Medicine, Graduate School, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. ∗Correspondence: Myung Jin Ban, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, 31, Suncheonhyang 6-gil, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan-si 330-721, Chungcheongnam-do, Republic of Korea (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives License 4.0, which allows for redistribution, commercial and non-commercial, as long as it is passed along unchanged and in whole, with credit to the author. Medicine (2017) 96:47(e8890) Received: 9 March 2017 / Received in final form: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000008890
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