ER degradation-enhancing α-mannosidase-like 1 protein (EDEM1) is involved in the routing of misfolded glycoproteins for degradation in the cytoplasm. Previously, we reported that EDEM1 leaves the endoplasmic reticulum via non-COPII vesicles (Zuber et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:4407-4412, 2007) and becomes degraded by basal autophagy (Le Fourn et al. in Cell Mol Life Sci 66:1434-1445, 2009). However, it is unknown which type of autophagy is involved. Likewise, how EDEM1 is targeted to autophagosomes remains elusive. We now show that EDEM1 is degraded by selective autophagy. It colocalizes with the selective autophagy cargo receptors p62/SQSTM1, neighbor of BRCA1 gene 1 (NBR1) and autophagy-linked FYVE (Alfy) protein, and becomes engulfed by autophagic isolation membranes. The interaction with p62/SQSTM1 and NBR1 is required for routing of EDEM1 to autophagosomes since it can be blocked by short inhibitory RNA knockdown of the cargo receptors. Furthermore, p62/SQSTM1 interacts only with deglycosylated EDEM1 that is also ubiquitinated. The deglycosylation of EDEM1 occurs by the cytosolic peptide N-glycanase and is a prerequisite for interaction and aggregate formation with p62/SQSTM1 as demonstrated by the effect of peptide N-glycanase inhibitors on the formation of protein aggregates. Conversely, aggregation of p62/SQSTM1 and EDEM1 occurs independent of cytoplasmic histone deacetylase. These data provide novel insight into the mechanism of autophagic degradation of the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) component EDEM1 and disclose hitherto unknown parallels with the clearance of cytoplasmic aggregates of misfolded proteins by selective autophagy.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgments We would like to thank Jon Soderholm (Yonsei University) for helpful comments on the manuscript. This work was supported by Korean research WCU grant r31-10086 (to J. r. and J. W. C.), the national research Foundation of Korea by the Ministry of education, Science and Technology (2010-0027736) (to J. r. and J. W. C.) and the Swiss national Science Foundation (to J. r.). Insook Jang is recipient of a fellowship from the Brain Korea 21 program.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Medical Laboratory Technology
- Cell Biology