Estane-Assisted Preparation of Submicron β-Form HMX Particles through Antisolvent Crystallization

Dong Woo Kim, Hyejoo Kim, Eugene Huh, Sewon Park, Chang Ha Lee, Ik Sung Ahn, Kee Kahb Koo, Keun Deuk Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) particles were prepared through solvent-antisolvent crystallization at room temperature by using dimethyl sulfoxide and ethanol as a solvent and an antisolvent, respectively. Estane, which has been used as a polymer binder in polymer-bound explosives, was added to retard nucleation and inhibit crystal growth. The particles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Owing to the nucleation at a high degree of supersaturation, thermodynamically unstable submicron non-β-form HMX particles were formed initially. Their morphology was changed to β-form; the submicron size was maintained while the particles were entrapped in Estane. Estane was removed by washing with tetrahydrofuran, and the purity of the submicron β-form HMX particles was greater than 99 %.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)944-949
Number of pages6
JournalPropellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jun

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the Defense Acquisition Program Administration and the Agency for Defense Development. The authors would like to thank Dr. Kee-Kahb Koo in Sogang University for the FBRM probe.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbH

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)


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