We conduct wind-tunnel experiments on three different uniform roughness arrays composed of sparsely distributed rectangular cylinders for the estimation of surface parameters. Roughness parameters such as the roughness length z0 and zero-plane displacement d are extracted using a best-fit approximation of the measured wind velocity. We also perform a large-eddy simulation (LES) to confirm that four sampling points are sufficient to surrogate a space average above the canopy layer of the sparse roughness arrays. We propose a new morphological model from a systematic analysis of experimental data on the arrays. The friction velocity predicted by the proposed model agrees well with the peak value of the measured Reynolds shear stress. The proposed model is further validated in an additional wind-tunnel experiment conducted on a scaled configuration of a real urban area exposed to four wind directions. The proposed model is found to perform very well particularly in the estimation of the friction velocity, readily leading to a better estimation of turbulence, which is essential for an accurate prediction of pollutant dispersion.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science