Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are the most abundant coffee byproduct and are generally discarded as waste. The horticultural use of SCG and SCG compost (SCGC) has become popular due to a growing interest in environmentally friendly measures for waste disposal. Estrogen-like endocrine disrupting chemicals in the soil can be absorbed by plants and subsequently by humans who consume these plants. The objectives of this study are to determine the phytochemical profiles of extracts of SCG and SCGC and to evaluate the estrogen-like activities of SCG, SCGC, and the major coffee phenolic acids, specifically, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA), caffeic acid, and ferulic acid. Their inductive effects on estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene transcription have been examined in cultured cell lines. CQA was the most abundant phenolic acid in SCG and SCGC and was further examined for its ER-mediated estrogen-like activity using various assays. This is the first study to report the estrogen-like signaling activities of coffee byproducts and their major constituents.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2019 American Chemical Society.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)