Background: Police officers work under stressful conditions, and the resulting occupational stress may impact their health and well-being through changes in positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). It is therefore important to assess officers' stress, PA, and NA while it is experienced. This study evaluates police officers' momentary stress and affect in real-world settings using an ecological momentary assessment, and examines the within-person (W) and between-person (B) factors that influence momentary affect. Methods: Eighty-nine police officers were recruited in South Korea. Participants completed questionnaires about their momentary stress and affect using a smartphone application. The associations between momentary stress, momentary contextual environment, momentary PA, and momentary NA were examined using mixed modeling. Results: Social overload (W: -.37), work discontent (W: -.45, B: -.73), social tension (W: -.79, B: -.67), and pressure to perform (W: -.29, B: -.49) were significantly associated with lower PA. Work overload (B:.33) and social isolation(W:.48, B:.31) were significantly associated with higher PA. Being with family (W:.71, B:.91) and friends (W: 1.89, B: 2.45) were significantly associated with higher PA. Being at home or other places away from the work place were significantly associated with higher PA (W: 1.01) and when patrolling or investigating were associated with lower PA (B: - 1.13). Lack of social recognition (W: 1.74, B: 2.33), work discontent (W: 1.59, B: 1.88), social tension (W: 1.74, B: 2.92), and pressure to perform (W:.78, B: 1.92) were significantly associated with higher NA. Being with colleagues (W: - 1.43), family (W: -1.38, B: - 2.66) and friends (W: -1.78, B: - 2.45) were associated with lower NA. Conclusions: Momentary within-person and between-person stress factors and contextual factors influenced police officers' momentary affect. These factors should be considered when developing interventions to mitigate stress and improve affect in police officers.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Yonsei University College of Nursing and Mo-Im Kim Nursing Research Institute in 2017 (grant number 6–2017-0206).
© 2020 The Author(s).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health