Objective: To evaluate flow pattern characteristics in the ascending aorta (AA) with four-dimensional (4D)-flow MRI and to determine predictors of aortic dilatation late after tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair. Materials and Methods: This study included 44 patients with repaired TOF (25 males and 19 females; mean age, 28.9 ± 8.4 years) and 11 volunteers (10 males and 1 female, mean age, 33.7 ± 8.8 years) who had undergone 4D-flow MRI. The aortic diameters, velocity, wall shear stress (WSS), flow jet angle (FJA), and flow displacement (FD) at the level of the sinotubular junction (STJ) and mid-AA were compared between the repaired TOF and volunteer groups. The hemodynamic and clinical parameters were also compared between the aortic dilatation and non-dilatation subgroups in the repaired TOF group. Results: The diameters of the sinus of Valsalva, STJ, and AA were significantly higher in the repaired TOF group than in the volunteer group (p = 0.002, p < 0.001, and p = 0.013, respectively). The FJAs at the STJ and AA were significantly greater in the repaired TOF group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively), while velocities and WSS parameters were significantly lower. FD showed no statistically significant difference (p = 0.817). In subgroup analysis, age at TOF repair was significantly higher (p = 0.039) and FJA at the level of the AA significantly greater (p = 0.003) and mean WSS were significantly lower (p = 0.039) in the aortic dilatation group. FD were higher in the aortic dilatation group without statistical significance (p = 0.217). Conclusion: Patients with repaired TOF have an increased FJA, dilated AA, and secondarily decreased WSS. In addition to known risk factors, flow eccentricity may affect aortic dilatation in patients with repaired TOF.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Korean journal of radiology|
|Publication status||Published - 2019 Sept|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by the faculty research grant of Yonsei University College of Medicine (6-2014-0103). We thank Professor Chi Young Shim (Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine) for the valuable comments and Filippo Piatti (Department of Electronics, Informatics and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Italy) for the technical support.
Received February 3, 2019; accepted after revision May 10, 2019. This study was supported by the faculty research grant of Yonsei University College of Medicine (6-2014-0103). Corresponding author: Young Jin Kim, MD, PhD, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea. • Tel: (822) 2228-7400 • Fax: (822) 393-3035 • E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
© 2019 The Korean Society of Radiology.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging